Wine is one of the most treasured beverages, love to which is shared by politicians, business persons and common people around the world. It is even considered a royal drink as the royal family consumes it since time immemorial. People drink wine during celebrations, festive events, and use it for pleasure, entertainment, medical, and even religious purposes. In past, it played an important role in traditional sacrifices and appeasements of the spirits among other ritual obligations. This paper describes the winemaking process, which grapes undergo to become pure wine.
Often referred to as a vinification, winemaking is a process of converting grapes into wine through fermentation. The process takes up to four years before the final results can be obtained. Such a long time is necessary since, when it comes to wine, the older it is, the better the taste. The process starts with harvesting the grapes from the field. Only the well-matured grapes are taken to the factory. After reaching the plant, the fruit are sorted. Then, the best grapes are placed in the pressing machine. The aim of that is to obtain grape juice. The liquid from the pressing machine is necessary to proceed to the next step. The juice is put into casks, where the first fermentation occurs. The first fermentation continues for about eight hours. As a result of this process, dry wine appears. It is left in the casks for about five months, then racked, and fined (Pinney 14).
Next stage starts with already fermented wine juice being blended in by the villagers of the wine region. With the help of their knowledge of wine, chefs in charge decide which wine blends in the best manner. Simultaneously, the addition of yeast and sugar is done. The purpose of adding yeast is to initiate second fermentation and help it take place well. Sugar is necessary to enhance the sweetness of the wine taste. As soon as the bottling of wine is accomplished, it is placed on racks. This is when and where the second fermentation of the wine occurs. It lasts from six to eight weeks, makes the wine stronger and contributes to its distinctive and lingering taste. However, the end of the fermentation does not signify the readiness of the wine for consumption because there are still dead yeast cells in it. To enable wine maturing, the bottles are kept horizontally for the duration from one to four years. The longer time the preparation takes, the better the quality of the final product (Jancis 39).
After the above step of fermentation, wine is rummaged, in other words, shaken to guide the sediment in the bottle to the top. This process takes around two years. Later, a disgorgement occurs, which is the removal of the sediments. The disgorgement is done with the least loss of the wine. It can be done by the elimination of a temporary cork, to which the sediments pushed by pressure. At this moment, the wine is purified and refined. Immediately after purification, a dosage is accomplished, which is the replenishing and refilling of the wine lost during the disgorgement. At the penultimate stage, sweeteners are added in the amount depending on the market. Finally, the corks are placed, and, thus, the wine is ready for sale (Jancis 40).
In conclusion, wine is obtained from the fermentation of grapes. The process requires the grapes of the best quality, yeasts, sugar, sweeteners, and, of course, profound knowledge and uncommon skills of the experienced chefs, working in special wine regions. The vinification consists of several stages, which take years to be accomplished. The older the wine, the better it is.