The interpretation of the following data is necessary to make the right diagnosis of the cause of a rash. The disease presented in the case study occurs in a school-aged child aged 14 years. It is associated with a high fever that is sudden and may last for at least two days. The symptoms of the disease include headache, malaise, little appetite, sore throat, persistent cough, and fatigue. The patient did not complain of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The disease seems to be contagious since it is thought to have been transmitted from one person to another in a crowded place since the child played a soccer game. After some time, the patient had high oxygen saturation, and a high heart rate was accompanied with a high respiratory rate. After the chest x-ray, a white ‘fluffy’ area on the right lung and interstitial infiltrates were observed, and lobar consolidations were negative. In approximately three days after the first examination, the patient complains of a scattered maculopapular rash on lower extremities, but has clear lung fields and no fever. This essay seeks to examine the health condition in question ranging from identification to treatment/management.
The disease described is mycoplasma pneumonia. It is a contagious illness that is spread through respiratory fluid contact. Therefore, since the mother reported that the boy was on the field playing soccer, it is likely that constant contact with other players while making tackles was inevitable. Hence, it can be the cause of the infection. It is also known to be spread through coughing in crowded places due to close contact (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Furthermore, it is necessary to explain that once someone has been exposed to the infection, he/she does not contract the disease immediately since it has an incubation period from 1 to 4 weeks (Surender & Malay, 2010). The disease mostly affects schoolchildren aged between 5 and 15 years old, and this perfectly befits the description of the patient.
The clinical manifestation of mycoplasma pneumonia depends on person’s immune system, with the older group of patients being most likely to experience more severe pulmonary lesions in case pneumonia develops. During its initial stage, it results in malaise, sore throat, headache, and the acute onset of fever. Then cough is manifested after 3 to 7 days (Kyung-Yil, 2008). Also in not less than 3 days, the extrapulmonary manifestation of the disease will be evident, and in the course of 4 weeks, mycoplasma pneumonia presents with all symptoms.
According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), antibiotics are the most advisable option of treatment in this case despite the disease is self-limiting. Macrolide, fluoroquinolone, and tetracycline are classes of drugs that are preferable for this disease. It is because mycoplasma bacteria have no cell walls, and are therefore resistant to beta-lactam antibiotic . Secondly, according to Colin, Yousef, Forno, and Korppi (2014), the intake of fluids accompanied with rest may also act as a way of treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia. It helps in the draining of bacteria through the genitourinary or respiratory tracts. Fluids may be given orally.
I consider it is necessary to do a follow-up on the patient after every two days for a period of two weeks in order to critically monitor his progress and offer medical attention to any severe condition, since according to the University of Maryland Medical Center (2016), the recommended treatment for mycoplasma pneumonia is from 10 to 14 days.
The most likely type of rash experienced by the patient is the skin one, which manifests itself with red spots forming a small bump on the skin and signals that the patient’s body is highly sensitive. It is mostly associated with an allergy to antibiotics subscribed for the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia, especially penicillin or amoxicillin (Shenggang et al., 2016).
The expectations that I would explain to the patient’s mother is that she will be able to see an improvement in the rash and its eradication after stopping the intake of antibiotics causing the allergy (Shenggang et al., 2016). It should be further stated that the patient is expected to go to school in roughly three days.
Education offered to the patient is that he should take in plenty of liquid, about 1-2 quarts in a day. He should avoid the suppression of a cough, have a continuous oral temperature check, and call the doctor in case of a high fever. He should also avoid smoking and ensure he completes the course of antibiotics prescribed. The mother should be more of a facilitator and ensure that the child is provided with the right environment that enhances his recovery (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2016).
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In conclusion, it is evident that the disease that can be interpreted from the case study is mycoplasma pneumonia and is contagious. It is so due to the description that greatly befits the symptoms and patient’s conditions. Its clinical course takes a period from 3 to 7 days, during which its symptoms are fully manifested. Based on the case study, the treatment is expected to last for a period from 1 to 2 weeks, during which the patient is ready to be examined well again. The use of antibiotics is not suitable to all patients since some are highly sensitive, and hence, this may lead to the development of rashes. It is also important to carry out follow-up checkups and advice the patient and the caregiver to avoid activities that may worsen the condition, for example smoking.
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