Linguistics is not just an interesting but also a complicated study. It helps understand the human speech from the scientific point of view, realize the differences between nations, cultures, languages and perceive the world in its brightest colors. Linguistic study is mainly just a theory though it is applied everywhere, e.g. in the everyday life and professional activities. The exception is the applied linguistics which works with language in life and combines theory and practice together. We use a set of linguistic means to communicate and express thoughts. Linguistics can also be applied in practice in the form of professional activity, for example, in education in the form of teaching, in human or computer sciences in the form of human translation and interpretation or machinery-based translation; in medicine, studying speed pathologies and ways to overcome or treat them.
In the paper, I will investigate a translation as an example of linguistic studies application. This is a professional activity connected with the conversion of the system of one language into the system of another. It considers the structure and peculiarities of both languages. I have chosen translation as an example of the linguistic study application because this process involves knowledge in many linguistic areas and, moreover, it is interesting in the way it studies and unites completely different cultures and languages.
To become an expert in the field of translation, it is necessary to get an education in linguistics, philology or international relations. It is not enough to be bilingual. For sure, a good translator has to possess a linguistic intuition, but also be literate in general and well-informed about all current translational techniques and methods as well. To do this, it is necessary to attend the courses or classes of foreign language, computer education, English writing, get certified and tested, gain experience and learn. The profession of a translator or interpreter means a constant process of studying because a language is not a stable system, it changes with time. Therefore, a translator needs courses, trainings and seminars to learn more about the changes in this sphere of work.
Translation process needs a translator to be educated in many areas of linguistics such as phonetics and phonology, syntax and semantics, pragmatics and grammar, conversation analysis and linguistic anthropology, historical linguistics and, in general, a translator has to be well-educated in many spheres. In this paper, I will mainly refer to the pragmatics because it is the study of language in use (Baker, 2014). Translation is a complicated process that uses both theory and practical knowledge of an expert. Translating process, especially when it is an oral translation, which is called interpretation, requires the understanding of the basics of phonetics and phonology. The correctness of pronunciation is important for a professional interpreter. Besides, it is essential for the better understanding of the information. For example, words wide /w a ɪ d/ and white /w a ɪ t/ have undoubtedly various semantics, though if the interpreter pronounces the sounds inexplicitly, there could be a confusion. A translation cannot be fulfilled without syntax and semantics knowledge of both the target and the source language. This means a translator has to understand the structure of both languages to translate adequately. An adequate translation means a translation based on the meaning of the source information, not the translation of the words only. A word-for-word translation is unacceptable. For example, syntax is applied in the translation process in the forms of different sentences – an interrogative sentence has its intonation and word-order, which is essential for the adequate translation. Semantics is important to distinguish words with multiple meanings such as crash which means an accident, failure or crisis. It can also be a verb. The translation here depends on the context. Grammar is certainly important in the process of translation because there will be no sense in the text without it. For example, he like linguistics, linguistics are complicated, linguistics has their imperfections, etc. Those grammatically incorrect word combinations show that there is no translation without grammar. Conversation analysis shows the interrelation of translation or interpretation with the use of language itself either in the written or the oral form. It studies the language in the form of a dialogue, an implementation of the theory in practice. Linguistic anthropology is also important for the translator because it shows the differences between cultures and languages. For example, the concept of worldview itself demonstrates how the perception of the world and language can be different, for example, the Himba tribe does not distinguish green and blue as separate colors thus there is no separate words for blue and green in their language. Historical Linguistics is also important because it shows how the language has changed and it tends to change greatly with time. It is a constantly moving substance. For example, the differentiation between will and shall nowadays is not important in translation because shall has lost its significance. All of those areas are important for the translator to understand and apply.
For this paper, the pragmatics is more important than other areas of linguistics because it is the study of language in use and is more important for the chosen linguistic study application, which is a translation process. Pragmatics combines the theory about the language and the practice of this particular language. Thus, it uses all the knowledge of the above mentioned areas and applies it in practice with the set of sociological and cultural peculiarities of the nation, language and speaker (Levinson, 2000).
Pragmatics has been studied by many scholars, for example, by Henry Siggins Leonard, who studied the theory of signs and its implementation. The article A Pragmatic Concept of Translation is based on Leonard’s words and summarizes the conclusions he made. The article is about the pragmatics in translation, its importance and, in general, what it means and why it is important. To translate a text from one language into another, a translator uses a set of translation means and methods.